Global warming is happening. 70% - Yes 14% - No 16% - Don't know Global warming will harm me personally. 41% - Yes 48% - Little/None 11% - Don't knowYale Climate Opinion Maps - U.S. 2018
There are thousands of peer reviewed papers that support the claims that the climate emergency is real, it is here now, and is a threat to human existence.
There are no peer reviewed papers supporting the following false claims from climate skeptics:
Carbon isotopes in atmospheric CO2 can be measured and used to determine the amount of CO2 produced by natural sources and from burning fossil fuels.
Over the past 100 years atmospheric CO2 levels have increased from 300 to 400 parts per million.
Over the previous 400,000 years CO2 ranges from 200 to 300 ppm; current levels over 400 ppm are extremely abnormal.
When measuring carbon isotopes in atmospheric CO2, 300 ppm were from natural sources and 100 ppm were from fossil fuel use.
While there are other measures of human impact on the climate, this measure is direct evidence that fossil fuels are the primary source of additional CO2 in the atmosphere.
Coal, oil, and natural gas come from plants and have the distinctive carbon isotope ratio of plants. As CO2 in the atmosphere has built up steadily, the isotopic composition of the carbon has shifted just as steadily in the direction of plant carbon, as shown in the chart below.
The more carbon we add, the more the carbon in the atmosphere shifts in the direction of plant carbon. Therefore, plants are the source of the added carbon. But which plants? To answer, we use another isotope of carbon: C14. It is radioactive and dies away to undetectable levels in 50,000 years or so. Fossil fuels, being millions of years old, have lost all their C14. Adding ancient carbon should have lowered the proportion of C14 in the atmosphere and as shown in the chart below, it has.
To conclude, the C13/C12 ratio shows that plants are the
source of the added carbon and C14 shows that the plants are
Fossil fuels are the only possible source.
The frozen arctic tundra and the Siberian ice shelf contain vast amounts of methane gas. Tundra regions entomb decayed frozen plants. As permafrost melts methane is released by microbes that eat thawed plant material. The bottom of an ice shelf has clumps of ice crystals that cage in methane molecules. Should the ice shelf warm the ice will melt and release the trapped methane.
The climate conditions for major methane releases is highly abnormal so it is not fully understood. If the trapped methane is only partially released it would increase temperatures enough to threaten human existence. Also, once the arctic has sufficiently warmed the release of methane would be unstoppable and we'd have a hot house climate within a generation.
Natalia Shakhova is on the forefront of arctic methane studies.
Property owners incur financial costs in property damage and relocation. They can also suffer personal injury and loss of life.
Taxpayers bear relief costs through Federal, State and Local assistance. Preventative costs include mitigation (e.g. sea walls and levees), conservation efforts, and flood insurance.
Businesses loose revenue when they are disrupted due to storm damage.
Insurance companies have complex cost management structures whereby they sometimes benefit and sometimes take loses from property damage. Insurance costs rise for property owners and businesses.
Electric power can be transitioned to alternatives without significant costs using current technology. Emerging technologies are able to greatly reduce the use of gasoline in vehicles. It will be more difficult to move away from heating with natural gas and oil, but instead can be mitigated with improved thermal management.
Climate change information was removed from the EPA website by the Trump administration to censor science. Many EPA staff scientists were also purged. This is a snapshot archived by the EPA. You are not supposed to know about this - doubleplus ungood.